An antibacterial or bactericidal substance is a substance with the ability to kill bacteria.

An antifungal or antifungal substance (also called fungicide or fungistatic) is a substance with the capacity to kill or limit the proliferation of microscopic fungi (eg substances that treat mycoses).


For the treatment of severe, bacterial diseases that do not respond to conventional antibiotics, viral structures are used. These are usually more successful where biofilms from a layer of polysaccharides protect the bacteria and cannot be penetrated by antibiotics.

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The Proper Treatment for Antibacterial Infections

The septicemia, also called "sepsis" is a generalized infection that spreads throughout the body the blood. Sometimes we hear that sepsis is an infection of the blood. This is true in part, but the infection always has another origin, which is called the "initial infectious focus”.

Causes of sepsis

Sepsis occurs when an initial infection is left untreated or poorly treated. The pathogen that causes the infection then spreads to the rest of the body through the bloodstream. The infection may be mostly bacterial, but it can also be caused by viruses, fungi or parasites.

Diseases that, if not treated, are most likely to degenerate into sepsis are:

·         a meningitis

·         Respiratory infection: pneumonia, bronchitis

·         An infection of the skin caused for example by an untreated burn

·         An infection of the digestive tract: peritonitis or appendicitis

·         An infection of the urinary tract or genitals

·         An infection of the heart valves

·         An infection that occurs as a result of a treatment: catheterization, surgery, etc.

·         A dental infection (toothache)

Who is affected? What are the risk factors?

Sepsis occurs in a person who first has an untreated (or poorly treated) localized infection. This is followed by other risk factors:

Age: newborns and the elderly

A weak immune system (due to cancer, HIV, chemotherapy, etc.)

Large wounds: extensive burns, for example

·         Surgical interventions

·         Contagion

·         Sepsis is not contagious, but the pathogen (germ, microbe) that causes the initial infection can be.

·         The main symptoms

·         Signs related to sepsis are not always easy to detect at first. As the infection spreads, we note:

·         High fever (in some cases, there is a decrease in temperature)

·         Chills

·         Feeling of general discomfort

·         Weakness and great fatigue

In case of wound: redness, pain and swelling instead of infection

When sepsis is at an advanced level:

·         Confusion, vertigo

·         Pressure drops

·         Tachycardia

·         Blood clotting disorders

·         State of shock


After a physical examination, sepsis is diagnosed by means of blood tests that identify the bacterium in question.

Treatment of sepsis

Sepsis always requires emergency hospitalization. The treatment envisaged includes:

Antibiotics by intravenous or oral medication

Treatment of related malfunctions: oxygen delivery, intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration, blood transfusions, etc.

In some cases, other measures are also needed, for example, drainage of an abscess

Prevention of sepsis

The only effective way to prevent the onset of sepsis is to have any persistent infection treated properly (with antibiotics), even if it seems benign.

According to WHO, antibiotic resistance is today "one of the most serious threats to global health, food security and development." This phenomenon leads to an increase in medical expenses, an increase in hospitalizations and, above all, an increase in mortality.

Thus, WHO recommends that antibiotics to which access is "required" be available at all times as a treatment against a wide range of common infections. For example, amoxicillin, an Antibacterial medicine widely used to treat infections. In the category of antibiotics to be used "with caution" are antibiotics recommended as first- or second-line treatment, but against a limited number of infections.

In particular, the experts recommend significantly reducing the utilization of ciprofloxacin for treating cystitis and upper respiratory tract infections for preventing the resistance from developing further. The category of antibiotics to be used as a "last resort" and the cephalosporin class.

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